By James C. Bobrow, MD
This part underwent significant revision for the 2008-2009 version. part eleven experiences the anatomy, body structure, embryology, and pathology of the lens. It additionally covers the epidemiology of cataracts and their evaluate and administration in adults. furthermore, an summary of lens and cataract surgical procedure is supplied, problems of cataract surgical procedure are mentioned, and cataract surgical procedure in distinct occasions is explored. includes many new pictures.
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Additional resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 11: Lens and Cataract (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
In addition, specific inhibitors of this enzymatic activity, 16 . Lens and Cataract applied either systemically or topically to 1 eye, decrease the rate of onset and the severity of sugar cataracts in experimental studies. Oxidative Damage and Protective Mechanisms Free radicals are generated in the course of normal cellular metabolic activities and may also be produced by external agents such as radiant energy. These highly reactive free radicals can lead to the damage of lens fibers. Peroxidation of lens fiber plasma or lens fiber plasma membrane lipids has been suggested as a factor contributing to lens opacification.
They cannot be seen unless the pupil is dilated, and they usually do not affect visual acuity. Coronary cataracts are often inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Cerulean Cerulean cataracts are small bluish opacities located in the lens cortex (Fig 4- I2); hence, they are also known as blue-dot cataracts. They are nonprogressive and usually do not cause visual symptoms. Nuclear Congenital nuclear cataracts are opacities of the embryonic nucleus alone or of both embryonic and fetal nuclei (Fig 4- 13).
Lens and Cataract ,- A c B l I . _ D E G H F -- , I I , ... 60 years (F),70 years (G), 82 years (H), and 91 years (/). Brown nuclear cataract in 70-year-old patient (J), cortical cataract in 68-year-old (K), and mixed nuclear and cortical cataract in 74-year-old (LJ. (Reproduced with permission from Lerman S Phototoxicity:clinicalconsiderations Focal Points: Clinical Modules for Ophthalmologists. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 1987, module 8) lens opacities) and the lens cortex can cause monocular diplopia.