A Dictionary of Symbols by J. E. Cirlot

By J. E. Cirlot

People, it's acknowledged, are symbolizing animals. At each level of civilization, humans have trusted symbolic expression, and advances in technology and expertise have in basic terms elevated our dependence on symbols. The language of symbols is taken into account a technological know-how, and this informative quantity bargains an vital software within the examine of symbology. it may be used as a reference or just browsed for excitement. a lot of its entries — these on structure, mandala, numbers, serpent, water, and zodiac, for instance — should be learn as autonomous essays. The power of symbology hasn't ever been larger: a vital a part of the traditional arts of the Orient and of the Western medieval traditions, symbolism underwent a 20th-century revival with the research of the subconscious, either at once within the box of desires, visions, and psychoanalysis, and ultimately in artwork and poetry. a large viewers awaits the help of this dictionary in elucidating the symbolic worlds encountered in either the humanities and the background of rules.

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23). 47-9). But the references to Caesar and Brutus in the Henry VI plays are chiefly of value in indicating what must have been the attitude to the Caesar story of at least a considerable part of the audience. If the majority of spectators had in fact felt that the murderers of Caesar 'did not offend, nor were not worthy blame', Queen Margaret's analogy would have been unhappily chosen. In the same way Bedford's comparison would have failed in its purpose unless a large part of the audience were in sympathy with the apotheosis of Caesar.

1 It seems based mainly on Appian, but, in its depiction of Caesar in its second half, clearly draws also a good deal on Lucan and on the Muret-Grévin tradition. In the early scenes Caesar is portrayed in a wholly sympathetic manner. On his first entry after Pharsalia he does not boast of his victory but weeps for the destruction caused by the civil broils, blaming his own ambition, which led him to inflict wounds on his mother, Rome. We next see him enamoured of Cleopatra, and weeping for Pompey's death.

Staine]. I, death the guerdon that my deeds deserue . . (ll. 2321-5) And he slays himself, anticipating, much in the manner of Othello, an eternity of tortures in Hell (ll. 2516-25). Caesar's ghost, on the other hand, now glutted with the blood of his enemies, looks forward to his blissful abode in the Elysian fields. There with the mighty champions of old time, And great Heroes of the Goulden age, My dateless houres Ile spend in lasting ioy. With these words the play ends. Dante's divine punishment has been combined with a divided attitude to Caesar and his assassins which is much like that of Appian and Dio.

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