A People and a Nation: A History of the United States, by Mary Beth Norton, Jane Kamensky, Carol Sheriff, David W.

By Mary Beth Norton, Jane Kamensky, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard Chudacoff

A humans and a state bargains a lively narrative that demanding situations scholars to contemplate American background. The authors' realization to race and racial identification and their inclusion of daily humans and pop culture brings historical past to lifestyles, attractive scholar readers and inspiring them to visualize what lifestyles used to be rather like some time past. The 8th version deals hugely readable tales and the most recent scholarship all through.

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All of these measures, as well as each of the Reconstruction Acts, were passed by a two-thirds override of presidential vetoes. The situation led some to believe that the federal government had reached a stage of “congressional tyranny” and others to conclude that Johnson had become an obstacle to the legitimate will of the people in reconstructing the nation on a just and permanent basis. Plans for Reconstruction Compared Johnson’s Plan Radicals’ Plan Fourteenth Amendment Reconstruction Act of 1867 Voting Whites only; highranking Confederate leaders must seek pardons Give vote to black males Southern whites may decide but can lose representation if they deny black suffrage Black men gain vote; whites barred from office by Fourteenth Amendment cannot vote while new state governments are being formed Officeholding Many prominent Confederates regain power Only loyal white and black males eligible Confederate leaders barred until Congress votes amnesty Fourteenth Amendment in effect Time out of Union Brief Several years; until South is thoroughly democratized Brief 3–5 years after war Other change in southern society Little; gain of power by yeomen not realized; emancipation grudgingly accepted, but no black civil or political rights Expand public education; confiscate land and provide farms for freedmen; expansion of activist federal government Probably slight, depending on enforcement Considerable, depending on action of new state governments 449 450 Chapter 16 Reconstruction: An Unfinished Revolution | 1865–1877 Johnson took several belligerent steps of his own.

Where whites were concerned, however, Johnson seemed to be pursuing changes in class relations. He proposed rules that would keep the wealthy planter class at least temporarily out of power. White southerners were required to swear an oath of loyalty as a condition of gaining amnesty or pardon, but The Congressional Reconstruction Plan Johnson barred several categories of people from taking the oath: former federal officials, high-ranking Johnson’s Confederate officers, and political Pardon Policy leaders or graduates of West Point or Annapolis who joined the Confederacy.

A northern journalist visiting Richmond that same fall observed a city “mourning for her sins . . ” The “burnt district” was a “bed of cinders . . ” Above all, every northern traveler encountered a wall of hatred among white southerners for their conquerors. An innkeeper in North Carolina told a journalist that Yankees had killed his sons in the war, burned his house, and stolen his slaves. “They left me one inestimable privilege,” he said, “to hate ’em. ” The Meanings of Freedom Black southerners entered into life after slavery with hope and circumspection.

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