By Patrick Bachelery, Jean-François Lenat, Andrea Di Muro, Laurent Michon
Piton de l. a. Fournaise and Karthala are either protect volcanoes within the southwest Indian Ocean. This e-book summarizes the paintings performed on those very lively basaltic volcanoes. Piton de l. a. Fournaise has a protracted historical past of clinical examine and tracking, with many info accumulated in the course of fresh eruptions. it truly is one among the main studied volcanoes on the planet. The paintings awarded during this monograph contains geological, geophysical, geochemical and petrological facets, but in addition reviews on actual geography, ordinary risks and the sociological and behavioural approaches.'
The Karthala volcano could be much less renowned, however it serves as an enticing comparability to Piton de los angeles Fournaise. even though positioned on the subject of the volcanoes of Hawaii, it differs from them via its extra alkaline magmas and not more widespread task. It used to be additionally monitored for greater than 25 years, generating amazing eruptions in contemporary years.
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Additional resources for Active Volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala
The speculations started with the discovery of a large positive gravity anomaly near the eastern coast of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Gérard et al. 1980; Rousset et al. 1989) (Fig. 2b), in the area called Grand Brûlé. A drill hole provided the proof that the structure responsible for the gravity anomaly was actually a hypovolcanic intrusive complex, mostly composed of gabbros and cumulates (Rançon et al. l. (bottom of the drill hole). The geothermal gradient and the relatively low 3 Construction of La Réunion temperature at the bottom of the drill hole (*140°) indicated that the complex was old and inactive (Rançon et al.
Lénat Fig. 1 P velocity model along a SW–NE transect through La Réunion (Gallart et al. 1999) The strong magnetization and low density of the coastal shelf (Fig. 2) is interpreted by Gailler and Lénat (2010) as being due to the presence of a belt of hyaloclastites and pillow lavas around the island. In the case of La Montagne Massif (see location on Fig. 1 Ma (McDougall 1971)) with additional pillow lavas and hyaloclastites. In two locations on the submarine flanks, the Etang Salé (ES) and eastern areas, well deﬁned positive and negative, short- to medium wavelength, anomalies extend tens of kilometres offshore (they are easily differentiated from the larger wavelength anomalies created by the oceanic crust, see Fig.
Their main argument was that such intrusive complexes usually develop during the ediﬁcation of shield volcanoes, as is the case, for example, for Piton des Neiges volcano (see above) and the Hawaiian volcanoes (Kauahikaua et al. 2000; Ryan 1987). The presence of negative magnetic anomalies (Fig. 78 Ma) are present at fairly shallow depths beneath the younger formations of Piton de la Fournaise and its submarine flank (Gailler and Lénat 2012). On land, the oldest dated rocks of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (up to 535 ka; Gillot and Nativel 1989; Kluska 1997) are found at the bottom of deep valleys (Rivière des Remparts, Rivière Langevin, Rivière de L’Est) and in La Plaine des Palmistes.