Africa. An Encyclopedia for Students. Leakey - Rwanda by John Middleton

By John Middleton

Supplying a accomplished examine the continent of Africa and the nations that contain it, this publication describes its peoples and cultures, song and artwork, exchange and economic system, vacations and fairs, tribal teams, ecology, faith, fossil and skeleton discoveries, the land and its heritage, paintings and structure and lifestyle. It examines Africa from prehistoric occasions to the current day.

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A change in climate caused the Sahara to dry up. Overgrazing—allowing large herds of animals to feed on the land until the surface vegetation is destroyed—may have accelerated the process. The climate change forced pastoralists to move farther south. C. C. These animals may have come from East Africa or they may have been introduced into the region by BANTU-speaking peoples migrating from west-central Africa. Colonialism and its aftermath have greatly affected the lives of African pastoralists.

However, internal division was only one problem with which Rainilaiarivony had to deal. His kingdom also faced the threat of France’s colonial ambitions. French Conquest and Colonialism. In the early 1860s, the Merina ruler Radama II signed a treaty with a Frenchman named Lambert. Called the Lambert Charter, it granted the French territorial rights to part of Madagascar. The agreement was later canceled by the Malagasy ruler. Relations with France grew worse when the Merina kingdom adopted Protestantism (France was a Catholic country).

Modern Amharic literature deals mostly with universal themes such as love, death, and social problems. Meanwhile, civil unrest has driven many Ethiopians to live abroad, where they have produced a body of non-African Amharic literature. It includes not only creative writing but also several types of Amharic computer software created by Ethiopian engineers. africa_vol3 1/14/03 11:45 AM Page 21 Literature Swahili Literature. Swahili culture arose from interactions between Bantu-speaking East Africans and Arabs from Persia and Arabia.

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