Archaic Societies: Diversity and Complexity Across the by Thomas E. Emerson

By Thomas E. Emerson

Crucial evaluate of yank Indian societies in the course of the Archaic interval throughout relevant North the US.

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Lyman and O’Brien 2004). Ironically, although Binford equated “type” with “norm” and treated both as 11 four-letter words not to be used in social discourse, it was the New Archaeologists who undeniably incorporated norms into their methodological approach to model building (cf. Lyman and O’Brien 2004). One outcome of the processualist approach to artifact analysis was the famous “style or form versus function” or “tale of two caves” debates between Binford and Bordes (Bordes 1972) in the 1970s; in the Old World, the argument centered on the implications of variability among Mousterian lithic assemblages, but in North America it signaled the start of a major reassessment of how archaeology should be conducted.

Master-novitiate) relationship provided the context for An Introduction to the Archaic Societies of the Midcontinent training successive generations of flintknappers in the“correct” way to perform a task (in this case, producing hafted bifaces). Correct performance involved not only the basic mechanical aspects and the châine opératoire of tool production but also the religious and symbolic implications that imbued the process with meaning. Many idiosyncratic elements of point production were also transmitted, involving the appropriate blade shape, stem treatment, hafting method, refurbishing sequence, and so on.

C. uncalibrated) into three subperiods of equal 2,000-year units. This division suited his research focus since he was primarily interested in identifying subsistence trends through time (on the basis of artifacts and faunal and floral data) for the various periods of rockshelter use. Although Fowler (1959a, 1959b) created his divisions arbitrarily for intrasite comparative purposes, his ability to recognize substantive differences between them led him to propose three periods of Archaic use of the Modoc site area: (1) a period of initial occupation, (2) a period of localization, and (3) a period of specialization.

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