Biological Warfare Against Crops by S. Whitby

By S. Whitby

Earlier little cognizance has been paid to the improvement of army features designed to focus on nutrients plants with organic battle brokers. This e-book represents the 1st noticeable learn of state-run actions during this box. It indicates that each one organic conflict courses have incorporated an element inquisitive about the improvement of anti-crop brokers and munitions. present main issue over the proliferation of organic guns is put within the context of the initiative to reinforce the organic and Toxin guns conference. the writer concludes that the hazards posed by way of this manner of war should be minimized by means of the implementation of regimes in regards to the peaceable use and keep watch over of plant pathogens that pose a probability to human overall healthiness and the surroundings.

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3 Important pathogens affecting wheat Puccinia graminis tritici (fungi) Puccinia glumarum (fungi) Puccinia rubigo-vera (fungi) Ustilago tritici (fungi) Tilletia spp (Iraq’s choice of pathogen as biological warfare agent (fungi)) Urocystis tritici (fungi) Gibberella zeae (fungi) Septoria nodorum (fungi) Ophiobolus graminis (fungi) Stem Rust of Wheat Stripe rust Leaf rust Loose smut Stinking smut (referred to by UNSCOM as ‘wheat cover smut’) Flag smut Scab Blotch Take-all The Study of Disease in Plants 35 Rice (Oryza sativa) The production and consumption of rice occurs on a scale of worldwide significance.

Diseases caused by viruses and viroids. Diseases caused by nematodes. [and] Diseases caused by protozoa. With regard to the environmental or the non-pathogenic group of factors, we can again adopt the classification applied by Agrios8 as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Too low or too high temperature. Lack or excess of soil moisture. Lack or excess of light. Lack of oxygen. Air pollution. Nutrient deficiencies. Mineral toxicities. Soil acidity or alkalinity (pH). Toxicity of pesticides. [and] Improper cultural practices.

In Africa, Swollen shoot of cacao has been responsible for continuous heavy losses, while Citrus quick decline (tristeza) has killed millions of citrus trees. Sugarcane mosaic and Sugar beet yellows have been, and continue to cause, heavy losses to sugarcane and corn worldwide. Nematodes Nematodes are multi-cellular invertebrate worms:25 Sometimes called eelworms, nematodes are wormlike in appearance but quite distinct taxonomically from the true worms. … Several hundred species [of nematodes], however, are known to feed on 32 Biological Warfare Against Crops living plants, causing a variety of plant diseases.

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