Birds of Passage: Migrant Labor and Industrial Societies by Michael J. Piore

By Michael J. Piore

Birds of Passage provides an unorthodox research of migration ion to city commercial societies from underdeveloped rual parts. It argues that such migrations are a continual function of commercial societies and they are generated via forces inherent within the nature of commercial economies. It explains why traditional fiscal conception unearths such migrations so tricky to understand, and demanding situations a collection of older assumptions that supported the view that those migrations have been important to either sending and receiving societies. Professor Piore heavily questions no matter if migration truly relieves inhabitants strain and rural unemployment, and no matter if it develops talents worthy for the emergence of an commercial labour strength in the house kingdom. moreover, he criticizes the concept that during the long term migrant labour enhances local labour. at the foundation of this critique, he develops an alternate idea of the character of the migration strategy.

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In general, immigrants are employed in businesses owned by natives and managed by native supervisors. The equipment is often built and repaired by native craftsmen, and the productive process is frequently integrated in such a way that the work of immigrants utilizes goods and services produced by native workers or serves as inputs into the productive activities of natives. All of these native workers would be affected by the elimination of the immigrants and the consequent increasing costs of the things they produce.

In the long run, curtailment of the supply of migrants can thus probably compel the requisite changes in relative wages. But in the short run, labor shortages of this kind are likely to produce wage-wage inflationary spirals in which the initial rise of migrant wages in response to market pressures is partially offset by a dynamic in which workers act to restore the original differentials through wage increases on other jobs. This process is important for two reasons: On the macro level, that is, for the economy as a whole, this suggests that we must anticipate as a consequence of curtailing migration not simply a decline in living standards, adjustments in the balance of payments, slower growth, and higher native unemployment.

But when the origins can be identified, it is invariably the employer who is the active agent. 7 But it is possible to identify such recruitment activities in the early stages of a number of other migrations. 11 These recruitment activities seem to explain both the timing of particular migration movements and the particular areas between which migrant flows develop. Recruitment is the key to the seeming paradoxes of migration processes; it explains why one region develops significant out-migration, and another, essentially comparable in terms of income, transportation costs, culture, and labor-force characteristics, never does so; how a low-income area can exist for years as an isolated, selfcontained economy despite its relative proximity to an industrialized area and then suddenly begin to generate significant emigration flows.

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