By David Mitton, Christian Roux, Pascal Laugier (auth.), Pascal Laugier, Guillaume Haïat (eds.)
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of bone is a comparatively fresh study box. The learn group is progressively transforming into, with interdisciplinary branches in acoustics, scientific imaging, biomechanics, biomedical engineering, utilized arithmetic, bone biology and medical sciences, leading to major achievements in new ultrasound applied sciences to degree bone, in addition to types to explain the interplay and the propagation of ultrasonic wave in advanced bone constructions. thousands of articles released in experts journals are obtainable from the net and from digital libraries. besides the fact that, no compilation and synthesis of the newest and critical learn exist. the one booklet on QUS of bone has been released in 1999 at a time while the propagation mechanisms of ultrasound in bone have been nonetheless principally unknown and the know-how was once immature. The examine neighborhood has now reached a severe dimension, designated classes are geared up in significant foreign conferences (e.g., on the international Congress of Biomechanics, the yearly conferences of the Acoustical Society of the US, overseas Bone Densitometry Workshop, etc...). as a result, the time has come for a totally brand new, entire assessment of the subject. The ebook will supply the latest experimental effects and theoretical options constructed to this point and is meant for researchers, graduate or undergraduate scholars, engineers, and clinicians who're concerned with the sphere. The primary a part of the publication covers the physics of ultrasound propagation in bone. Our aim is to offer the reader an intensive view of the mathematical and numerical types as an reduction to appreciate the QUS strength and the kinds of variables that may be decided through QUS for you to symbolize bone energy. The propagation of sound in bone remains to be topic of in depth examine. assorted types were proposed (for instance, the Biot conception of poroelasticity and the idea of scattering were used to explain wave propagation in cancellous bone, while propagation in cortical bone falls within the scope of guided waves theories). an in depth assessment of the types has no longer been released up to now. We intend during this booklet to offer in info the versions which are used to resolve the direct challenge and methods which are at present built to deal with the inverse challenge. this may contain analytical theories and numerical techniques that experience grown exponentially lately. most up-to-date experimental findings and technological advancements may also be comprehensively reviewed.
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Extra resources for Bone Quantitative Ultrasound
For example, viscous losses may explain sound wave absorption in water where attenuation varies with the square of the frequency. However, this model of viscosity (quadratic dependence of the attenuation coefficient versus frequency) does not explain experimental mea- 2 Introduction to the Physics of Ultrasound 41 surements of absorption in soft biological tissues as well as in bone in the diagnostic frequency range. Other models hypothesized that a significant fraction of the absorption of longitudinal waves in soft tissues involves a spectrum of relaxation mechanisms at the macromolecular scale of proteins  or potentially thermal transport phenomena arising from temperature gradients in the medium .
Benhamou, P. Porion, E. Lespessailles, R. Harba, and P. Levitz, “Fractal dimension of trabecular bone projection texture is related to three-dimensional microarchitecture,” J Bone Miner Res 15(4), 691–699 (2000). 63. D. B. Burr and M. Hooser, “Alterations to the en bloc basic fuchsin staining protocol for the demonstration of microdamage produced in vivo,” Bone 17(4), 431–433 (1995). 64. R. D. Chapurlat, P. Garnero, G. Breart, P. J. Meunier, and P. D. Delmas, “Serum type I collagen breakdown product (serum CTX) predicts hip fracture risk in elderly women: the EPIDOS study,” Bone 27(2), 283–286 (2000).
Extensive details on the techniques and the parameters that can be derived from such methods can be found in the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) bone densitometry report . 4 Main bone structural features determining bone strength, according to physical scale (From ) Scale (m) Bone characteristics >10−2 Macrostructure Bone densities Whole bone morphology (size and shape) 10−2 –10−3 Mesoscopic scale (apparent and real densities) 10−6 –10−3 Microstructure (porosity, cortical thickness, trabecular number and spacing, structural anisotropy) Sub-microstructure (microcracks) 10−9 –10−6 Nanostructure (collagen fibers) <10−9 Sub-nanostructure (hydroxyapatite crystals) 1 Bone Overview 19 Fig.