By Elke Grawert and Zeinab Abul-Magd
The Arab Uprisings have introduced renewed recognition to the position of the army within the MENA sector, the place they're both the spine of regime strength or a very important a part of patronage networks in political platforms. This choice of essays from overseas specialists examines the commercial pursuits of armed actors starting from army companies in Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Jordan, Sudan, and Yemen to retired army officials’ monetary endeavors and the internet of investment of non-state armed teams in Syria and Libya. because of the mixed energy of industrial and palms, the army frequently manages to include or quell competing teams and hence, to revert achievements of progressive pursuits.
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Extra info for Businessmen in Arms: How the Military and Other Armed Groups Profit in the MENA Region
According to Seitz, the “Arab Spring” challenged the ruling bargain, but did not dissolve the patronage system in Yemen, which provides the framework for the civil war that started in 2014. Intervention by Saudi Arabia in the domestic war has added a dimension of proxy war to the Yemeni internal conflict. 18 Elke Grawert Philippe Droz-Vincent points out that the military had been a weak component of the security forces in Libya for decades. After uprisings and a Western military intervention ousted the regime in 2011, a range of militias, legitimized by the “revolutionary struggle,” assumed political and economic roles.
Throughout the 1980s, NSPO and other military corps established factories of frozen vegetables, mechanized slaughterhouses, chicken farms, fish farms, pasta factories, textile factories, bakeries of subsidized bread, and much more. 12 Consequently, officers disappeared from movies and songs that celebrated their war heroism, and they forged a new discourse about their contribution to “economic development” in the postwar country. In order to justify their penetration into nonmilitary economic realms, the army asserted that its civilian products and services were mainly for its own self-sufficiency, national price control, and the welfare of the lower classes.
10. Lock, “Gewalt als Regulation: Zur Logik der Schattenglobalisierung,” 40–61. 11. ” 12. ” 13. ” 14. ” 15. Schlichte, In the Shadow of Violence, 28. 17. Droz-Vincent, “From Political to Economic Actors: The Transforming Role of Middle Eastern Armies,” 195–211. 18. Ben-Dor, “Civilianization of Military Regimes in the Arab World,” 317–27; Perlmutter, “The Praetorian State and the Praetorian Army,” 382–404. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, 3–5. For Africa including North Africa, see Grawert, Departures from Post-Colonial Authoritarianism: Analysis of System Change with a Focus on Tanzania, 113–21.