By Jim Hightower, Ted Smith, David A. Sonnenfeld, David Naguib Pellow
"Challenging the Chip" is the 1st entire exam of the affects of electronics production on staff and native environments all over the world. The essays during this quantity give a contribution to a collaborative foreign discourse of electorate, employees, overall healthiness pros, teachers, labour leaders, environmental activists, and others with the typical target of constructing substitute visions for the rules and sustainable improvement of producing, assembly/disassembly, and waste disposal within the international electronics undefined. participants from Asia, North the US, Europe, and Latin the United States offer multidimensional views at the technology and the politics of environmental and social justice, documenting the efforts of neighborhood and labour activists, govt companies, and others in introducing extra sustainable structures of creation to 1 of the world's greatest production industries.
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Additional resources for Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry
O CCUPATIONAL H EALTH : A N OVERVIEW Semiconductor-chip making is a light manufacturing operation. Workers incur fewer severe work-related injuries than do workers in heavier manufacturing. Nonetheless, they are at high risk for musculoskeletal pain and injuries. Upper-extremity symptoms are common among fabrication workers, and have a dose–response relationship with hours of work per day (Pocekay et al. 1995). In a study in Malaysia, musculoskeletal pain and injuries occurred in the majority of semiconductor workers (Chee, Rampal, and Chandrasakaran 2004).
One general distinction can be made between the production of microchips and electronics systems manufacturing. The chip industry (“Semiconductors and Related Devices,” NAICS 334413) is the core of the electronics industry’s production system, with highly specialized know-how in manufacturing processes and notoriously high cost of investment. However, within this category there are at least three types of companies with very different models of production. Integrated device manufacturers (IDMs), such as Intel, AMD, Renesas, or Inﬁneon, integrate product development and massive manufacturing operations, employing both manufacturing workers and engineers in large numbers.
And European high-tech manufacturing centers. In the United States, not one contract manufacturing plant is represented by a union. S. S. low-wage force during the late 1990s. S. unions in key manufacturing industries. In Europe, even wellestablished unions like IG Metall in Germany lost its presence in plants that were sold from multinationals, such as Siemens, to contract manufacturers. In spring 2004, Siemens threatened to close its last remaining phone manufacturing factory in Germany by shifting the work to low-cost locations in Hungary, mostly to contract manufacturer Flextronics.