Изображения: черно-белые рисунки
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Extra info for Чертежи кораблей французского флота BISSON 1946
This model of conservative Republicanism was bankrolled by a double anxiety: on one hand, the fear of a monarchical reaction and, on the other, the spectre of a return to the Commune. Republican policy needed to find a juste milieu, which was capable of placating the bourgeois mainstream whilst also fulfilling the wishes of the Left. The prospect of universal suffrage was, as Gambetta saw it, as much about installing a Republican identity as resolving once and for all the question of revolution.
55 Indeed, in one sense, the Commune was an incandescent moment, but its symbolic purchase continued to inspire subsequent radical discourse into the twentieth century. 56 Despite – or rather because of – its brutal and bloody repression, the Commune assumed a powerful place in the nation’s collective memory. In the years immediately following, a climate of fear led to the restriction of political freedom. After the general amnesty for exiled and imprisoned Communards in 1880, annual rallies converged (originally at the behest of Jules Guesde) at the Mur des Fédérés in the Père Lachaise cemetery.
Whilst these first steps towards a modern welfare state were undoubtedly a response to political pressures, they also had much to do with new discoveries about energy conservation and loss, discoveries which had captured the late nineteenth-century political and cultural imagination, not least Zola’s. 69 Across Europe an expanding science of work developed theories of fatigue and the means to measure the body’s energetic expenditure with the intention of calculating the conditions for absolute efficiency in the production process.