By Javier Martinez
Chilean students and activists lower during the rhetoric surrounding "the Chilean miracle" and supply an built-in research of the method of socioeconomic and political switch that remodeled their nation among 1970 and 1990.
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Cottage City, Maryland Printed by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co. Harrisonburg, Virginia Page v THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION The Brookings Institution is an independent, nonprofit organization devoted to nonpartisan research, education, and publication in economics, government, foreign policy, and the social sciences generally. Its principal purposes are to aid in the development of sound public policies and to promote public understanding of issues of national importance. The Institution was founded on December 8, 1927, to merge the activities of the Institute for Government Research, founded in 1916, the Institute of Economics, founded in 1922, and the Robert Brookings Graduate School of Economics, founded in 1924.
The modernizing, and not simply reactionary, nature of the Pinochet dictatorship was most clearly demonstrated in the way it managed to redirect rather than reverse these earlier transformations. This issue is examined in greater detail in the following chapters. It is sufficient here to consider the transformation of agriculture-the basis for the new export model-as an example. During the Pinochet period, only a third of the land expropriated under the agrarian reform programs of previous governments was returned to its original owners.
The concentration of power in the hands of General Pinochet would be marked by two other especially important milestones, both linked to plebiscitary forms of legitimization. These broke with the prevailing logic of taking decisions through an agreement between the chiefs of the different branches of the armed forces. The first instance in which citizens were called to express themselves took place at the beginning of 1978. " The response of the head of the military government was to call a "national consultation" on December 21, 1977.